Factors Affecting the Female School Principals’ (in Pakistan) Leadership and Management Styles


  • Haroon Gill Forman Christian College (A Chartered University).
  • Ashar Johnson Khokhar Forman Christian College (A Chartered University).




Educational leadership, social value system, family, religious association, school Principal


The number of female teachers and principals in Pakistan, in both public and private sectors, has significantly increased. However, there are very few studies that have focused on how female principals lead and manage their schools, as well as the factors influencing their leadership behaviors and practices. The study aims to investigate the barriers and factors that affect women's leadership and management styles in the context of Pakistan. The research collected data from school principals from three major cities of Pakistan: Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi. The individual interviews were conducted online using Zoom and Google Meet. Research participants were selected through a convenience sampling strategy. The interview data was analyzed and categorized into themes such as family and peer support, social, cultural, and religious associations, and their influence on school principals' perspectives and leadership value systems. This study finds a connection between family and peer support and their influence on the transition of teachers into school principals. This study also found that the social, cultural, and religious belief systems also contributed to the growth of female principals' development and played a crucial role in nurturing their leadership skills.