Examining the Factor Structure of Short Grit Scale (8 items) among University Students in a Collectivist Society - Pakistan


  • Farhan Iqbal PhD scholar, Department of Public Administration, University of Karachi
  • Farah Iqbal Department of Psychology, University of Karachi, Pakistan
  • Ghazal Khawaja Humayun Department of Public Administration, University of Karachi, Pakistan




cultural, factor structure, short grit scale


Pakistan's education ministry correctly identified management problems in its latest policy but paid no attention to helping students improve their psychological mindset. It is necessary to develop programs to help children raise their psychological outlook to bear the rigors of 21st-century education. This study examined grit that has the potential to be part of any developmental program. In particular, we focused on examining the factor structure of the short grit scale among university students using optimal strategies. Additionally, we provided cultural interpretations of the results. Our EFA result on polychoric data (n=268) in the R program revealed a two-factor solution: consistency of interest (4 items) and perseverance (3 items). The mean interitem correlation reliability was within the range (.29 to .34), and ordinal alpha was significant (.65) in both dimensions. Further, the CFA on polychoric data (n=269) displayed good fit indices for a two-factor solution with high reliabilities for both dimensions (Coefficient H > .80). Our first MGCFA exhibited metric-level measurement invariance across gender. Similarly, the second MGCFA between groups (n=41) separated by 4.5 months displayed metric-level measurement invariance. The cultural interpretations of the results surmise that a two-factor solution exists among the sample students. However, these facets might act independently, and a high score on both dimensions might imply a gritty person. Though additional dimensions to define grit in collectivist societies have emerged, they require further validation.