Investigating Language and the Interdependency of Paradigmatic & Syntagmatic Relations i.e. Structuralism over Stylistics & Semantics: A Review


  • Nazra Zahid Shaikh Senior Lecturer, Department of English, Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Hamdard University, Main Campus, Karachi.
  • Rafique Ahmed Memon Pro-Vice Chancellor, Sindh University, Thatta Campus



Language, Syntagmatic Relations, Paradigmatic Relations, Structuralism, Stylistics, Semantics


Language, erudition, and philosophy are all unified. Language facilitates the complicated process of learning, which consists of discovery, collaboration, and inquiry. However, from an internal perspective language is a set of closely-knitted units which are restricted for their use, meanings and styles. Language, which is made up of related and regulated symbol systems, is also a social and only distinctively human way of representing, examining, and communicating meaning. The study of language is incomplete without structuralism, semantics and stylistics where structuralism is about sentence constructions, semantics is about meanings and stylistics is about styles of language. On the first go, this review paper explores the nature and various surfaces of language to help understanding the process of language production and perception. Secondly, this review study explores the role of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations in structuralism. It also explains how structuralism is dependent on semantics and stylistics to produce meaningful sentences. This study concludes that language neither can be fully mastered nor explained unless these three areas are not given well-deserved space whereas the meaningfulness of every sentence requires the accurate command on syntagmatic and paradigmatic sentence relations. The theoretical analysis presented in this study also sheds light on the importance of the learning of correct language structures for students to actively participate in a variety of learning activities both inside and beyond the classroom.